Which of the following are true regarding the kidney?
a) The presence of cyst calcification in patients with adult polycystic kidney disease confers a high risk of renal malignancy
b) The ipsilateral adrenal gland is involved in 10% of patients with renal cell carcinoma
c) In renal cell carcinoma, the demonstration of stranding in the perinephric space
on CT indicates tumour extension beyond the kidney
d) Gradient echo sequences have greater accuracy in the detection of inferior vena cava
(IVC) tumour thrombosis than spin echo sequences
e) Lymphangioleiomyomatosis of the kidney is associated with tuberous sclerosis

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