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Which of the following are true regarding coarctation of the aorta?
a) Adult coarctation is commonly associated with cardiac anomalies
b) The ductus arteriosus usually remains patent in adult type coarctation
c) A short segment of narrowing of the ascending aorta is seen in infantile coarctation
d) It is a rare cause of infantile heart failure
e) Rib notching is usually present by 1 year of age

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