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In the imaging of acute testicular torsion, which of the following are true?
a) Surgery is successful in 20% of patients who present between 12 and 24 hours after onset of symptoms
b) On sonography, a reactive hydrocoele is seen after 6 hours
c) Colour Doppler ultrasound may show increased blood flow in the epididymis
d) Hyperperfusion of the testicle on colour Doppler ultrasonography makes testicular torsion unlikely
e) Technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy typically shows a halo of hyperactivity in the acute phase (first 6 hours)

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